The trend to miniaturize medical diagnostic and analytical instrumentation to free up precious lab space has led engineers to pack more functionality into a tighter space constraint. This increases the heat flux by packing electronics in a smaller footprint and has led to thermal challenges. Waste heat must be efficiently managed to meet conflicting requirements of increased performance with reduced power consumption and quieter operation all in a compact design. For systems that require refrigeration for specific reaction temperatures, such as benchtop incubators, laboratory centrifuges, chromatography and clinical chemistry analyzers, temperature control systems play an important role in performance, size and improving test results. One popular cooling solution that enables OEMs to meet these thermal challenges utilizes thermoelectric assemblies (TEAs) with integrated temperature control.