Using liquids for heat transfer is an important cooling method in many industries. Selection of the best heat transfer fluid for a cooling system involves consideration of performance, compatibility, and maintenance factors. Water has excellent heat transfer properties, making it somewhat of a standard for comparison to other coolant fluids. Among heat transfer fluids, water has superior properties in many regards, with a high specific heat of around 4,200 J/kgK, low viscosity, and no flash point. On the other hand, it has a relatively narrow range of operation, as liquid temperatures leave plain water susceptible to freezing or boiling.